(Si vous n’utilisez aucun système de reconnaissance vocale pour l’instant, vous pouvez uniquement vous entrainer à dicter les commandes et la ponctuation avec l’enregistreur vocal.)
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African statesman (homme d’État) and a social rights activist (militant des droits sociaux) who fought all his life for black people’s rights. For more than 20 years, he led a peaceful and nonviolent campaign, aiming at changing the South African government and its segregationist policies (politiques ségrégationnistes) against Black people. To achieve his ambition, he founded the 1952 Defiance Campaign (Campagne de Défiance), leading demonstrations (manifestations) and acts of civil disobedience (actes de désobéissance civile) across the country, the 1955 Congress of the People, an anti-apartheid summit, and the law firm Mandela and Tambo, which provided free and low-cost legal counsel (conseils juridiques) to Black people who were legally highly unrepresented.
In 1963, Nelson Mandela was arrested and imprisoned for treason, and for his clandestine political activities. After 27 years in jail, he was released in 1990, and never stopped fighting against black segregation and declared that the armed struggle (combats armés) would be maintained until the implementation of the right to vote for Black people. In 1993, Mandela received the Nobel Peace Prize, for his battle against apartheid in South Africa. In 1994, he became the first South African black president, at the age of 77, and remains a symbol of peace and struggle against racism.
The Enigma machine is an electro-mechanical cipher machine. Invented at the end of World War I by a German engineer, Arthur Scherbius, its purpose was to protect confidential communication. However, it was then developed and used by the Nazis during World War II, to encrypt radio signals and transmit coded messages. Enigma has an electromechanical rotor mechanism designed to scramble the 26 letters of the alphabet, creating billions of coding possibilities. The machine settings were changed every day at midnight, which made it almost impossible for other nations to break German codes during the war. A group of English researchers, including Alan Turing, exploited the engine’s weaknesses and designed the Bombe machine. Such painstaking efforts provided the key ingredient to the recipe of cracking Enigma in January 1940. Despite the Britons sanctioning a share of attacks to be carried out to avoid Nazi suspicion, the Allies successfully prevented many interventions from the Nazis, thanks to the information they decoded. Historians estimate that breaking Enigma shortened the war by more than two years, saving over 14 million lives. It remained a government-held secret for more than fifty years.
The Royal Mail Ship (RMS) Titanic was a British liner that set sail on its maiden voyage on April 10, 1912, traveling from Southampton, England, to New York City. On the evening of April 14, the Titanic received alerts from other ships as it was approaching an area known to have icebergs. However, as the boat was sailing on calm waters, the captain maintained the ship’s speed of 22 knots. Around 11:40 p.m., an iceberg was spotted in the light fog straight ahead. The engines were turned left and rapidly reversed. Alas, collision couldn’t be avoided. The ship’s starboard side scraped along the iceberg, which slashed a 100-meter crack in the hull. Five compartments were ruptured and filled with seawater, causing the Titanic to gradually sink into the Atlantic Ocean. The closest boat was more than three hours away and the 20 lifeboats could not carry all the passengers. Subsequently, hundreds of people innocently threw themselves into the icy waters. All told, only 705 people were rescued with more than 1,500 people deceased. To date, the Titanic is one of the deadliest peacetime shipwrecks in living history.
Vous pouvez maintenant appuyer sur Mark Complete ci-dessous, puis passer à la leçon supplémentaire (leçon pilote).